Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (風の谷のナウシカ , Kaze no Tani no Naushika) is an animated post-apocalyptic fantasy adventure film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki, that premiered March 11, 1984. Isao Takahata produced the film for publisher Tokuma Shoten and advertising agency Hakuhodo, with TopCraft animating. It was screened alongside two compilation movies for Sherlock Hound, The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle and Treasure Under the Sea.
It is based on Miyazaki's manga of the same name, first serialized on Animage magazine on February 4, 1982, and completed in March 1994. The story itself was inspired by the 1971 comic Rowlf by American cartoonist Richard Corben, while the name Nausicaä was derived from the Greek epic Odysseus. Miyazaki was also strongly inspired by French comic artist Jean Giraud Moebius Arzach (1975), as seen in the documentary, Ghibli: The Miyazaki Temple. The movie has environmentalist undertones and was presented by the World Wide Fund for Nature when it was released in 1984.
Nausicaä is ranked as one of the 50 greatest science fiction films by the Database. While created before Studio Ghibli was founded, the film is often considered to be the beginning of the studio because of the involvement of Studio Ghibli's Hayao Miyazaki, Isao Takahata, Toshio Suzuki, Hideaki Anno and Joe Hisaishi. It is often included as part of the Studio's works, including the Studio Ghibli Collection DVDs and Blu-Rays.
Joe Hisaishi composed the film's musical score. The film stars the voices of Sumi Shimamoto, Goro Naya, Yoji Matsuda, Yoshiko Sakakibara and Iemasa Kayumi. Its poster's advertising slogan is, "The love of a girl called a miracle." (少女の愛が奇跡を呼んだ).
The movie won the Animage Anime Grand Prix prize in 1984. In December 2019, the story was adapted into a Kabuki stage play by Shinbashi Enbujō. The film also inspired the Tokusatsu tribute short, Giant God Warrior Appears in Tokyo, directed by Hideaki Anno and released on July 10, 2012.
At the time of its theatrical release, it was screened on 35mm film and the audio was in mono. Its theatrical release posters were painted by famed artist Yoshiyuki Takani. The film was followed by Castle in the Sky.
- 1 Opening
- 2 Plot
- 3 Influences
- 4 Behind the Scenes
- 5 Release
- 6 Sequel
- 7 Music
- 8 Manga
- 9 Voice Cast
- 10 Credits
- 11 Related Products
- 12 References
- 13 External Links
- 14 Navigation
The Princess Who Loved Insects
"Nausicaä, you've grown! I almost mistook you you for someone else.""My! A fox-squirrel."
"It has been a year and a half! Father will be delighted. I must thank you. You've become a fine wind-user."
"No, Father says not yet."
"Oh, yes... I completely forgot about this fellow."
- —Yupa introduces Nausicaä to Teto
One thousand years have passed since the Seven Days of Fire, an apocalyptic war which destroyed human civilization and most of the Earth's original ecosystem. Scattered human settlements survive, isolated from one another by the Sea of Decay. The Sea of Decay is a jungle of giant plants and fungi swarming with giant insects, which seem to come together only to wage war. Everything in the Sea of Decay, including the air, is lethally toxic.
Nausicaä is the agile and cheerful young princess of the peaceful Valley of the Wind. Although a skillful fighter, Miyazaki's Nausicaä is humane and peace-loving. She has an unusual gift for communicating with the giant insects (particularly with the Ohmu, the gigantic, armored, caterpillar-like insects who are the most intelligent creatures in the Sea of Decay). She is also noted for her empathy toward animals, humans, and other beings. An intelligent girl, and inspired by the mentor figure Yupa, a wandering samurai type possessed of great wisdom, Nausicaä frequently explores the Sea of Decay and conducts scientific experiments in an attempt to define the true nature and origins of the toxic world in which she lives. Her explorations are facilitated by her skill at "windriding"; flying with an advanced glider-like craft with a jet assist called a möwe. Yupa is searching for the mythological man in blue who, according to the legend, will appear surrounded by a sea of gold and reunite the people and nature.
Annihilation of Pejite
"In the midst of my travels, I heard an ominous rumor... It said that a monster from the ancient world had been excavated from beneath the city of Pejite, where it was sleeping."
"A monster from the ancient world?""Ah! If so, this fellow would have human form."
"It's a God Warrior."
"A God Warrior?! You mean, the ones that burned the world in the Seven Days of Fire...?! This thing..."
"The Giant Guardians must all have been completely fossilized..."
"But the fellow continued to sleep underground for 1000 years."
- —Yupa and Mito discuss the discovery of a God Warrior
One day, an airship (a kind of large cargo airplane) crashes onto the cliffs near the Valley of the Wind. Nausicaä tries to rescue a hand-cuffed girl of her age from the burning wreck, but she dies after telling that she is Princess Lastelle from the kingdom Pejite and that the cargo of the airship must be destroyed. The airship is from Tolmekia and the cargo turns out to be a God Warrior (kyoshinhei embryo, Giant Warrior in the English release), one of the lethal, giant, biological weapons used in the ancient war.
It is later revealed that the God Warrior embryo was unearthed by Pejite, but it was stolen by the more powerful state of Tolmekia (Tormekia in the manga). While transporting the Warrior back to their realm, the Tolmekians were attacked by insects and subsequently crash-land in the Valley. The very next day, the Tolmekians, under the leadership of princess Kushana, invade the Valley to kill the Valley king and to secure and revive the Warrior. Kushana explains that the God Warrior will be used to burn the Sea of Decay, although Obaba, an old and blind Valley woman warns that attempting so will only enrage the Ohmu and lead to more deaths.
Invasion of Kushana
"The reason the Wasteland came to be...? You're a girl who thinks strange things."
"Humans polluted the trees of the Wasteland. They came to be born in order to purify this world... Taking the Earth's poisons into their bodies, they become pure crystals, and die, becoming sand. This underground cave could do the same thing. The insects are protecting those trees...""You're wrong! We aren't planning to use a God Warrior in battle! Tomorrow, if you meet everyone, you'll understand!"
"And if so, we can't just destroy them. How many thousands of years have we suffered? It's no use living in fear of the vapors and the insects. At the least, we need a way to keep the poison from spreading more than it has."
"You talk the same way Kushana does..."
- —Asbel speaking with Nausicaä
Kushana attempts to return to Tolmekia, with Nausicaä and several others as hostages. Before their departure, Nausicaä reveals to Yupa a hidden garden of jungle plants, that are not toxic because they are growing in sand and water from a deep well. Nausicaä explains that the jungle is only toxic due to the toxic soil that is everywhere on the surface of the earth. The airships with Kushana and Nausicaä are attacked by a Pejitan gunship and several of the ships are forced to make an emergency landing in the Sea of Decay. There, Nausicaä communicates with several ohmu and discovers that the pilot of the Pejitan gunship is still alive. With the help of her glider, Nausicaä rescues the pilot from a swarm of enraged insects. However, they crash and end up in a strange, non-toxic world that is below the Sea of Decay; the plants in the Sea of Decay purify the polluted soil, and in this way produce clean water and sand, which remains hidden in this underground world. The pilot turns out to be Asbel of Pejite, the twin brother of princess Lastelle.
Nausicaä and Asbel return to Pejite, which turns out to be destroyed after the Pejite people lured the insects from the Sea of Decay into their town in order to kill the occupying Tolmekian forces. The Pejite people reveal that they will do the same thing to the Valley of the Winds in order to recapture the God Warrior. To prevent Nausicaä from alerting the Tolmekians, they capture her, but she escapes with the help of Asbel. With a gunship, she returns to the Valley, but along the way they encounter an enormous herd of enraged Ohmu who are on their way towards an injured baby Ohm, which is used by the Pejite people to lure the Ohmu to the Valley. Nausicaä releases the baby Ohmu and gains its trust.
Resurrection of the God Warrior
"Oh... What sympathy and friendship it is... The Ohmu are opening their hearts... Children - substitute for my blind eyes and look well for me."
"The Princess is wearing a deep blue dress. It looks just like she's standing in a golden field...""She used the old words..."
"Oh!! That person, wearing a blue robe, shall stand in a golden field..."
- —Grandma and a young girl witnessing Nausicaä's resurrection
In the meantime, the Tolmekians try stopping the herd with armored vehicles they brought with them but to no effect, later Kushana arrives with the God Warrior to stop the Ohmu herd, but the Warrior, woken too early, dies in the process. However, Nausicaä, with the baby Ohmu, is finally able to stop the Ohmu herd, but she is overrun and slain in the process. In front of the Valley people and the Tolmekian forces, the Ohmu use their gold-colored tentacles to revive Nausicaä, whose dress has turned blue by the baby Ohmu's blood; thus Nausicaä turns out to be the mythological "man" in blue mentioned in the beginning. The film ends with fragments of a future where people and insects live in peace with each other.
The story holds deeper meaning than its depiction of war; there are both environmental and ecological subtexts in Miyazaki's narrative. Even the insects seem to be working toward some secret harmony and the lethal fungal forest seems to have a vital role in Earth's new ecosystem.
In an Animage interview on the origins of Nausicaä, Hayao Miyazaki explains that her name is the name of a Phaeacian princess who appears in the Odyssey. He first learned of her from Bernard Evslin's book Gods, Demigods & Demons: Encyclopedia of Greek Mythology (published as part of Shakai Shisosha's Modern Educational Pocketbooks series translated by Minoru Kobayashi), and was instantly attracted to her. After he read a novelization of Homer's [[Wikipedia:Odyssey Odyssey], he found it lacking because, in that version, Nausicaä wasn't nearly as appealing as she was in Evslin's book.
Miyazaki describes Nausicaä as a "fleet-footed, fanciful, beautiful girl. She loves her harp and singing more than any suitor or ordinary happiness, and her extraordinary sensitivity leads her to delight in playing amid nature. When Odysseus is shipwrecked and injured, rather than being afraid of his bloodied form, Nausicaä treats his wounds. And it is Nausicaä who melts his heart with her improvised Odysseus's ship sail out of sight. According to one legend, Nausicaä watches Odysseus's ship sail out of sight. According to one legend, Nausicaä thereafter never married and spent her years wandering from court to court as the first traveling female minstrel, singing about Odysseus and his voyage of adventure."
Indeed, as Evslin wrote at the end of his section on Nausicaa, "Whatever the case, she had a special place in the heart of the weather-beaten voyager."
The film and its manga counterpart were originally inspired by the 1971 underground comic Rowlf by American cartoonist Richard Corben, which is about "a princess carrying the fate of a small country." The story is set in the Medieval kingdom of Canisland, where Rowlf is devoted to his large-breasted mistress Maryara, and hostile towards her suitor, Raymon. Miyazaki proposed to Tokyo Movie Shinsha to acquire the copyright for Rowlf. In his proposal to acquire the writes to Rowlf, Miyazaki writes:
"I think that Rowlf would be an ideal for a theatrical feature film targeting the American market. It definitely is not for little children (i.e., not for a TV audience) but if handled properly it could potentially appeal to all classes of young Americans and surpass the appeal of Ralph Bakshi's Wizards. The images in Rowlf may seem unfamiliar and grotesque to Japanese audiences, but by massaging them and making them more digestible, I believe the film could also attract young Japanese audiences."
Miyazaki felt Rowlf would have been an ideal project for young people of that time who felt "over-managed, overprotected, and suffocated by society", or who found their choices increasingly limited and thus are "increasingly neurotic."
By 1983, Miyazaki would later put forth these film projects following this ethos of offering "a liberation to present-day young people..." by drawing a manga that incorporated those feelings for Animage. That manga would be eventually Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind.
Miyazaki modeled Nausicaä after the The Lady Who Loved Insects (虫めづる姫君 , Mushi-mezuru Himegimi), a twelfth-century Japanese tale of one who defies social convention and breaches the decorum expected of a Heian court lady. At a time when most girls would have shaved their eyebrows and stained their teeth black, this was most unusual.
It is one of ten short stories in the collection Tsutsumi Chūnagon Monogatari (Tales of the Tsutsumi Middle Counseler). Miyazaki muses, "In an age of classics like [[[Wikipedia:The_Tale_of_Genji|The Tale of Genji]] or The Pillow Book, there was no way society could tolerate a young noblewoman falling in love with bugs and going around with unshaved eyebrows. Even as a child, I was always extraordinarily curious about what happened to her later."
Miyazaki took inspiration from various classic science fiction media, such as René Laloux animated film Fantastic Planet (1973) and manga artists Osamu Tezuka, Daijiro Moroboshi (particularly Moroboshi's gritty style).
He was also strongly influenced by French cartoonist Jean Giraud Moebius's [[Wikipedia:Arzach Arzach] (1975), of which Miyazaki admitted while speaking with Moebius during a joint exhibition in France. These events can be seen in the 2005 documentary, Ghibli: The Miyazaki Temple. In addition, Miyazaki derived ideas from Sasuke Nakao's "East Asian Evergreen Forest Culture Theory" which establishes the relationship between the Syvash (Putrid Sea or Rotten Sea) and humanity.
Other influences include various SF novels such as Pastel City by M. John Harrison. The first Viriconium novel, The Pastel City (1971), presents a civilization in decline where medieval social patterns clash with advanced technology and superscience energy weapons that the citizens of the city know how to use but have forgotten how to engineer. Harrison's leading character, Lord tegeus-Cromis, fancies himself a better poet than swordsman; yet he leads the battle to save Viriconium, the Pastel City, from the brain-stealing automatons known as the "geteit chemosit" from Earth's past.
Miyazaki fondly remembers the line where the forest moves when he read Macbeth as a child, and has carried this idea in wanting to write a story that dealt with plants.
Some of the names of people and places that appear in both the film and the manga resemble actual historical matters. For example, Kushan is the name of the Indian dynasty (Kushan dynasty), the name "Hephthalite" is the name of an actual nomadic race, and Miralpa is based on a real Tibetan Buddhist practitioner ([[[Wikipedia:Milarepa|Milarepa]]).
Miyazaki cites that the Valley of the Wind is inspired by Central Asia, notably the rotting sea of Syvash in Crimea, Ukraine. There is a place called the "Valley of the Winds" on Mount Olga (Kata Tjuta) in Australia, but according to Studio Ghibli, it is not relevant.
Miyazaki's first serialized manga People of the Desert (砂漠の民 , Sabaku no Tami), which ran from September 12, 1969, and March 15, 1970, is set in Central Asia, which features the royal capital of Pejite.
Another early version of Nausicaä can be seen in Miyazaki's one-volume watercolor-illustrated manga The Journey of Shuna, published by Tokuma Shoten on June 15, 1983. Based on the Tibetan folk tale Prince who Became a Dog, Miyazaki describes the folk tale as a story of "the prince traveled west."
Behind the Scenes
The Birth of Nausicaä
"Even though I thought it was a waste of time, I didn't get any requests from anywhere, and all the (movie) plans I put out were turned down. That kind of thing has been going on for the last three years and it's been really hard."
- —Hayao Miyazaki, after the box office failure of The Castle of Cagliostro
Hayao Miyazaki made his credited directorial debut in 1979 with The Castle of Cagliostro, a film which was a distinct departure from the antics of the Lupin III franchise, but still went on to receive the Award Ofuji Noburo Award at the 1979 Mainichi Film Concours. Although Cagliostro was a failure in the box office, Toshio Suzuki, editor of the magazine Animage, was impressed by the film and encouraged Miyazaki to produce works for Animage's publisher, Tokuma Shoten. The box office disappointment of Cagliostro meant that many of Miyazaki's film ideas were rejected, and Tokuma asked him to do a manga: this led to the creation of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind.
Miyazaki began writing and drawing the manga in 1979, and was serialized on Animage in February 1982. It proved to be extremely popular, and by November 1982, Miyazaki left Telecom Animation Film to focus on his manga work. Animage Editor-in-Chief Hideo Ogata proposed to adapt it into a 10-minute short film to be screened at the Anime Grand Prix, an Animage sponsored event, however Miyazaki declined. A 70-minute OVA project was later proposed, but was abandoned after the project was deemed not profitable. The proposal for a feature-length anime adaptation was finally accepted after Ogata struck a deal with Yasuyoshi Tokuma, president of Tokuma Shoten to co-sponsor the production. Miyazaki initially refused, but agreed on the condition that he could direct.
Despite having a film division in Tokuma Shoten, the company had little experience in producing animated projects. Bandai, who had partnered with TV Land magazine, proposed a deal to be a joint investment company, but the deal fell through. The president of Hakuhodo, a major advertising agency, and Yasuyoshi Tokuma decided to invest after a meeting between both executives. Fortunately, Miyazaki's younger brother worked at Hakuhodo, and the decision was made to release it on a national "road show".
Toei was set to distribute the film, but had little faith it would do well in the box office and were considering lowering its advertising budget. Yasuyoshi Tokuma once again came in and convinced Toei President Shigeru Okada that Nausicaä would be a big hit. Under Tokuma's direction, Tokuma Japan handled the bulk of promotional activities.
"I want Mr. Takahata to be a producer."
- —Hayao Miyazaki
By 1983, Toshio Suzuki asked who Miyazaki wanted as producer for his new film. Without hesitation, Miyazaki said, "I want Mr. Takahata to be a producer," Suzuki thought, "I see, that's good!" Takahata had collaborated with Miyazaki on numerous works prior, from Horus, Prince of the Sun (1968) to Heidi, Girl of the Alps (1974) to Future Boy Conan (1978). Takahata was initially reluctant, saying "I am not suitable for a producer". Following that, Suzuki persistently tried to persuade him every day for more than a month, but Takahata stubbornly refused. Finally, Suzuki gave up and asked, "Mr. Miyazaki, would you like someone else to be the producer?"
Miyazaki sat in silence for a while, and eventually said, "Mr. Suzuki, let's go for a drink." When the two entered a bar, Miyazaki suddenly started drinking sake. Suzuki, who had never seen him drink before, was surprised. Miyazaki drank alcohol as if he were alone (Suzuki seemed to be unable to drink a single drop of alcohol).
Miyazaki, now drunk, began started crying out loud. Amidst his wailing, he began complaining in earnest, "I have dedicated my whole youth to Isao Takahata for fifteen years!" Mr. Suzuki had no words to say, and had no choice but to keep listening to the director's complaint.
That same evening, Suzuki rushed to Takahata's house and said, "Mr. Takahata, please take the role of producer!" Isao Takahata attempted to refuse, "No, it's not suitable for me as I said before..." After a tense back and forth, Suzuki's patience ran out. "Miyazaki-san wants you to do it! Isn't he an important friend of yours? You're in so much trouble if you don't you help!" Takahata, surprised at this, finally agreed, "I understand. I will do it."
Isao Takahata, credited as executive producer, reluctantly joined the project after being convinced by Toshio Suzuki. This was done even before the animation studio was chosen. An outside studio to produce the film was needed because Tokuma Shoten did not own an animation studio: Miyazaki and Takahata chose the minor studio [TopCraft]]. The production studio's work was known to both Miyazaki and Takahata and was chosen because its artistic talent could transpose the sophisticated atmosphere of the manga to the film.
On May 31, 1983, work began on the pre-production of the film. Miyazaki encountered difficulties in creating the screenplay, with only sixteen chapters of the manga to work with. Miyazaki would take elements of the story and refocus the narrative and characters to the Tolmekian invasion of Nausicaä's homeland. Takahata would enlist the experimental and minimalist composer Joe Hisaishi to do the score for the film.
Miyazaki et al. were considering commissioning Telecom Animation Film or Nippon Animation for the production. Both companies refused, saying "We are currently working on another work, so the staff cannot afford it." Telecom had previously worked with Miyazaki on The Castle of Cagliostro (1979) but declined as they were currently working on the animated adaptation of Little Nemo. They approached Tokyo Movie and Toei Animation and were also met with a harsh response, "I know that Mr. Miyazaki will make good works, but the demands are too strict and the staff and the company will be left in tatters..."
Just as they were about to run out of options, Isao Takahata, who had just taken the role as a producer, pulled them out of their crisis. Since Nausicaa was Takahata's first experience as a producer, he had to study the process from scratch, setting up an accurate production system that was not bound by conventional customs and common sense. To be a good producer, he needed to Miyazaki to only worry about his storyboard and directing work while he handled the rest. He needed to secure a base and staff and a budget for each department with as well.
Nausicaä was produced with animators hired for the one movie and paid per frame. Key animation work began in August 1983. TopCraft's president Toru Hara, was a former a colleague of Miyazaki and Takahata's while they were working at Toei, and were mainly involved in overseas co-productions.
The biggest hurdle Miyazaki faced is how to adapt his own original work, without losing its essence and intention, "If it's someone else's material, you (as a director) can change it without hesitation, but if it's something (you made), it's not easy to be objective. Even if it is not drawn out from the original material, there is anguish and feelings in the back of each frame. The motifs in the film were based on the original, but it was hard because we had to re-order the scenes while changing their meaning / context, and then wrap it all together in 'furoshiki' so that everything would fit (the runtime) of the movie."
In order to reduce the burden on Miyazaki on adapting his own work, they hired Kazunori Ito to produce the screenplay. Ito, a regular collaborator of director Mamoru Oshii, is credited of producing such classics as the Urusei Yatsura series and Police Patlabor Unfortunately, the resulting script Ito wrote exceeded three hours. According to Mr. Ito, "I didn't think it could be packed in more than 110 minutes by any means." With Ito's script delayed, Miyazaki proceeded to work on storyboards. In the end, Ito couldn't fit the entire story in the film's 110 minute runtime and left the project. Miyazaki, frantic at this latest development, rushed into production leaving the ending still undecided.
Takashi Nakamura from Tatsunoko Production, Yoshinori Kanada, who was popular for his work on "Kanada Perth," were hired as key animators. At the time, Kanada was living in the neighborhood where Takahata lived, and he was a huge fan of his and Miyazaki's work. Suzuki who was delighted after he was hired, saying "This is lucky!" Kanada cited his first work had been on Panda! Go, Panda! (1972). He would go on to become an influential member of Studio Ghibli, later working on Princess Mononoke in 1997.
The production faced issues in unifying the animators' drawing styles. Processes were set up to check each and every frame of animation so that the film's look would remain consistent. The staff consisted of animators from TopCraft, Oh! Production, and Free Animator. The core drawing staff consisted of 19 artists (at least 4 or 5 from TopCraft alone), reaching as many as 30 at some point. The reason for the large number of animators was due to how many were confused by the Miyazaki's detailed layout and 'drawing check system', resulting in numerous delays. As the number of animators increases, the individuality of each drawing naturally disperses, and the sense of unity in the animation is lost. Miyazaki struggled working from early morning to late night to correct any errors.
As a result, many of the expressions of characters in the film were rough and unrefined. Massive crowd scenes were reduced into still images. There was one bright spot - Yoshinori Kanada contributed massively to the quality of the film by creating dynamic action scenes and strong character poses. Miyazaki praised Kanada, saying he is "A rare animator with elements that give physiological pleasure in pictures and movements." Kanada would go on to work on 100 cuts, usually centered on flashy explosions and action set pieces involving Asbel's surprise attack on Kushana's forces or the crashed Pejite ship.
Miyazaki faced another issue - he could not find an animator that was willing to do the climactic scene involving the God Warrior firing upon the Ohm. Hideaki Anno, who later produced Evangelion Neon Genesis Evangelion and the 2012 Tokusatsu tribute film Giant God Warrior Appears in Tokyo, was also hired after seeing an ad for Animator Urgent Recruitment on Animage. Anno, who was skilled in drawing mechanical objects and explosions, was assigned to draw the challenging God Warrior's attack sequence, which according to Toshio Suzuki is a "high point in the film". At first, Miyazaki was worried no animator could draw characters and mecha well at the same time, and that he would have to constantly correct their work. In the end, Anno drew all the giant warriors, tanks, and explosions, and Miyazaki repainted only the characters in the second original key drawing. "It was a very luxurious collaboration (laughs)." Miyazaki recalls.
The final storyboard sequence involved Nausicaä getting crushed by the rampaging Ohmu. During a meeting in a local teahouse, Miyazaki presented this scene to Takahata and Suzuki and said, "Here is the end mark." Toshio Suzuki and Isao Takahata, who saw the storyboard, were silent for a while. Takahata asks, "What do you think, Mr. Suzuki?" Suzuki answers, "Hmm, it's a bit unpleasant to end." After several hours of discussion, they came up with three possible endings:
- Plan A: "The Ohmu rushes towards Nausicaä and she stands before them. The film suddenly ends."
- Plan B: "The Ohmu rushes towards Nausicaä is blown away. Nausicaa dies."
- Plan C: " Nausicaä is blown away, but then come back to life. "
Takahata then asks, "Mr. Suzuki, which of these three is better?", "Would you like to die and revive?". As the deadline for the film's release drew closer and closer, they had little time to decide. They told Miyazaki to consider "Plan C", to which he replied, "I understand, I will do it." Suzuki replied, "Is it okay to decide so easily even though it's an important last scene?"
After the film was released, Miyazaki expressed some regret on his decision, "That last scene is a regret." He later elaborated, "That's all you can do with the film. It's important that Nausicaa, the heroine, discover the real role, structure, and significance of the fukai, or Sea of Decay, and as a result trigger a Copernican-like revolution in understanding. I had decided that was about all I could show ina film version, but there were too many elements still in my mind that wouldn't fit into that simplified and it bothered me that I couldn't make them work. It's no wonder there were problems, because in the manga I essentially decided to write about whatever I wasn't able to depict in the film."
Film vs. Manga
In 1994, after the completion of the manga, Miyazaki was asked how the two version's ending differed and the choices he made, with the film being more open ended whereas the manga had a more definitive ending. He explained that, "If I ever had to go back and redo everything and make the film first, I'm sure I would do the same thing. There would be no changes." and that it would've been "ridiculous" to keep drawing the manga story after the film ended.
"As I indicated before, films have an "end mark" or clear ending, so I didn't keep creating the manga story in an attempt to follow the film's story. I frankly didn't worry about what I had done in the film at all. Mainly because I'd already forgotten most of it. [laughs]
Yet, especially in the initial stages of making the Nausicaä film, I kept insisting that the story only represented a wish on my part, that I wasn't working from any assumed reality. But when the film was finished I discovered that I was actually up to my neck in the religious zone I had always wanted to avoid; I seriously felt that I had backed myself into a corner, and though, "Uh-oh..."
On finishing the film, I told myself that if I were going to continue the manga serialization I would have to take a more no-nonsense approach. While creating the manga however, I also realized there were so many things I didn't understand that I would have to keep going without ever figuring them out.
Production ramped up in the final months before its release. TopCraft lacked the manpower and Suzuki put out more animator recruitment ads on Animage. Miyazaki took the initiative to work early in the morning and work overtime late at night, and demanded that the staff work devote all their efforts to improving the quality of the work. The staff returned from the holidays and work until midnight until December 31st. Miyazaki himself drew many of the key drawings and layouts, working without break from 9am to 3pm. He had nearly reached his limit and appealed to Takahata and Suzuki, "We will never be in time for the release date!"
Takahata organizes an emergency meeting with the staff. Miyazaki thought Takahata would propose some sort of breakthrough, but instead said "We have no choice but to delay." Everyone, including Suzuki, who was present at the show, was so stunned that he couldn't even speak out. For Takahata, it was more important to "keep the quality of the movie" than to "finish it by the deadline". After awkward silence due to Takahata's remarks, Miyazaki was furious, saying, "I can't say anything more because the producer says this."
Following this, the staff worked day and night. Miyazaki decided to cut corners by not animating large crowd scenes. The planned final fight between the God Warrior and the Ohmu, which was storyboarded, was completely cut. The second half of the film had a complicated action scene involving Yupa fighting off Tolmekian soldiers. That too was cut, with one character remarking 'I don't have time!' The soldiers are killed with a simple depiction of a quick flash.
Later when Hideaki Anno saw this scene, he joked, "This is where it suddenly looks like Ishikawa Goemon (from Lupin III) (laughs)." However, as a result of mercilessly cutting scenes, work efficiency gradually improved, and they were miraculously able catch up with the proposed release date. By February, much of they animation had been drawn, but the cels were yet to be painted. The painting team, comprised mostly of women, scrambled and worked nearly 24 hours a day. Suzuki noted one woman couldn't go home for three days straight, wearing the same clothes the entire time.
The producers scrambled for three months to complete the film's sound mixing. Voice actors wore special masks made of rubber attached to a paper cup while recording certain scenes. The technique required various trials and errors until the proper effect was achieved.
The film was released in March 1984, with a production schedule of only nine months (May 31, 1983 to March 6, 1984) and with a budget equivalent to $1 million. Over 56,078 drawings were made, and 263 colors were used.
Nausicaä Girl Contest
Prior to the film's release in 1984, the company sponsors held Nausicaa Girl Contest to select an "image girl" for the film. Narumi Yasuda, who turned 18 at the time, was chosen out of 7,600 applicants. They announced that Yasuda would sing the theme song to Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind that would be featured in the film, but Miyazaki and Takahata opposed this as they felt there would be a discrepancy between the contents of the film and the song.
In the end, the song was only used in theatrical trailers and TV spots, but did make it into the film at the end credits.
|Japan||March 11, 1984||Theater||Toho|
|Japan||April 1984||Laserdisc||Tokuma Shoten|
|USA||June 1985||Warriors of the Wind||Manson International and Showmen|
|Japan||Winter 1991||VHS Re-Issue||Tokuma Shoten|
|Japan||Winter 2003||VHS Re-Issue||Buena Vista Home Entertainment|
|Japan||May 2008||DVD Re-Issue||Buena Vista Home Entertainment|
The film was originally released by Toei Company in Japan on March 4, 1984, and sold 915,000 tickets and distribution revenue reached 740 million yen.
A heavily edited and English-dubbed version of the film was released theatrically in North America, shown on HBO and released on VHS by New World Pictures & Manson International in the 1980s as Warriors of the Wind. According to Nausicaa.net, the voice actors and actresses were not even informed of the film's plotline and more than 30 minutes of the movie were cut from the film because New World felt that "the parts were slow moving". As a result, part of the film's narrative meaning was lost; some of the environmentalist themes were diluted as was the main subplot about the Ohm, altered to turn them into aggressive enemies. Most of the characters were renamed (for example, Nausicaä became "Princess Zandra"). The cover for the VHS release featured a cadre of male characters, who are not part of the film, riding the resurrected God Warrior — including a still-living Warrior shown briefly in a flashback. It was released around the world under various different titles, such as Sternenkrieger (literally "Star Warriors") in Germany. It was rumored that June Foray provided the voice of Zandra, though this has been proven as untrue.
Many fans of Nausicaä, along with Miyazaki himself, dislike this version; Miyazaki suggested that people should put it "out of their minds." Studio Ghibli and Miyazaki have asked fans to forget its existence, and they later adopted a strict "no-edits" clause for future foreign releases of its films. On hearing that Miramax co-chairman Harvey Weinstein would try to cut Princess Mononoke to make it more marketable, Toshio Suzuki personally gifted a replica katana with a simple message: "No cuts".
The rating of this film is PG in both the United Kingdom and US.
An uncut and re-dubbed version of Nausicaä was released on DVD by Buena Vista Home Entertainment on February 22, 2005, for Region 1. This DVD also includes the Japanese audio track with English subtitles. Optimum Home Entertainment released the film in Region 2, and the Region 4 DVD is distributed by Madman Entertainment. The 2005 DVD version made it around the world uncut.
Despite being massive critical and commercial hit, Miyazaki felt the film only deserved a rating of 65 points. "I made it by skipping all the legitimate production procedures of the movie, but I still haven't grasped the theme. Even if I had another six months, I would have only reached 68 points."
Suzuki was even harsher, giving the film a score of 30 and saying, "Miyazaki-san is not just a director, but a writer, so I wanted him to move on to a newer horizon. It's disappointing that we're looking back on the present from the future." Miyazaki lamented, "There was no other way the film would fit in two hours." The production also left Miyazaki burnt out. “I have to tell you something,” Miyazaki confided to collaborator and friend Toshio Suzuki. “I made a movie, but I lost all kinds of friends. I don’t want that kind of life. I want to go back to being an animator.”
When asked by the studio and fans on producing a sequel, he declined, explaining that didn't even have a conclusion to the mange, and had no idea how it would end up.
The profits earned from the film were later used in the production of The Story of Yanagawa's Canals, a documentary released in August 1987.
During the premiere event of Castle in the Sky in 1986, Yasuyoshi Tokuma was asked regarding a for a sequel to Nausicaä, wherein he revealed that Miyazaki felt it would not live up to his expectations. Tokuma said that he had been persistently asking and writing letters to Miyazaki every time they met. In 1993, as the serialization of Nausicaä manga reached its climax, a sequel was rumored to be in development but later rejected after Miyazaki declined.
In 2011, Miyazaki suffered from poor physical health during the production of The Wind Rises, which caused him to reconsider his decision as he thought he was close to death. He was receptive to the idea of Anno doing whatever he wanted with Nausicaä, and hoped he would pursue some kind of related project. so if Anno also does it, he seems to like it instead of the original. He made it clear at his retirement press conference in September 2013 that he would make his own sequel.
Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind: Image Album (風の谷のナウシカ イメージアルバム 鳥の人 , Kaze no tani no Naushika Imēji Arubamu Tori no Hito) was released Nov 25, 1983. The 11-track album contains synthesized interpretations of the existing orchestrated tracks from the official soundtrack.
Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (OST) (風の谷のナウシカ サウンドトラック 〜はるかな地へ~ , Kaze no Tani no Naushika Saundotorakku ~Haruka na Chi he~) was released by Animage Records and Tokuma Japan Communications on March 25, 1984. Joe Hisaishi was hired to compose and arrange the film's score. This would be his first involvement with Miyazaki's works.
The soundtrack featured the theme song composed by Haruomi Hosono and sung by Narumi Yasuda. Besides Hosono, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Yuji Takahashi, and Hikaru Hayashi were considered as the film's main composer.
Neither Miyazaki nor Takahata had any prior knowledge of Hisashi. It is said the flashback song The Distant Days was sung by Mai, the daughter of Hisaishi, who was four years old at the time. Initially, Miyazaki wanted to use Vladimir Vysotsky's The Song of the Earth as the theme song, but couldn't acquire it due to copyright issues.
The main soundtrack was produced using a 50-member orchestra, and instruments such as the Prophet-5, LinnDrum, MC4, and DX7, and folk instruments such as quena, tabla, and dulcimer were used. Following its release, the soundtrack to the film ranked 8th on the Oricon album chart and the theme song sung by Narumi Yasuda is ranked 10th on the single chart.
Miyazaki's manga version of Nausicaä was written over a period of 13 years, with breaks taken to work on Studio Ghibli films. Serialized in Tokuma Shoten's Animage magazine, the first chapter was published in February 1982, and the last chapter in March 1994. As can be expected, the story of the manga is far more complex than that of the film. The tale depicted in the film roughly corresponds to only the first quarter of the manga (which is all that had been written at the time the film was produced), with significant differences in plot.
In addition to the plot, there are other significant differences in the story – the characters are more developed and the environmentalist tone is more sophisticated, echoed in the complex worldview of Princess Mononoke. Nausicaä herself is portrayed as being much more potent, with abilities that are not always explained.
The Nausicaä manga is published in English by VIZ Media. Earlier editions of the English manga and fan translations often used the title Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind, omitting the definite article.
- 1985 dub: Ginny Taylor, Jeff Winkless
- Disney: Newell Alexander, Rosemary Alexander, Tom Amundsen, Stephen Apostolina, Mitch Carter, Robert Clotworthy, David Cowgill, Wendy Cutler, Ike Eisenmann, Jean Gilpin, Nicholas Guest, Bridget Hoffman, Sherry Hursey, Rif Hutton, Edie Mirman, Richard Miro, Peter Renaday, James Arnold Taylor, Lynnanne Zager
|Screenplay||Hayao Miyazaki, Kazunori Itō (first draft)|
|Character Design||Hayao Miyazaki, Kazuo Komatsubara|
|Assistant Director||Kazuyoshi Katayama, Takashi Tanazawa|
|Animation Check||Hideo Hiratsuka, Tadashi Ozawa|
|Animation Director||Kazuo Komatsubara|
|Assistant Key Animator||Masahiro Yoshida, Tomihiko Ohkubo|
|Key Animation||Hideaki Anno, Hidekazu Ohara, Junko Ikeda, Kazuyuki Kobayashi, Kitaro Kousaka, Makiko Futaki (uncredited), Megumi Kagawa, Michitaka Kikuchi (uncredited), Noboru Takano, Osamu Nabeshima, Shouji Tomiyama, Shunji Saida, Tadakatsu Yoshida, Tadashi Fukuda, Takanori Hayashi, Takashi Nakamura, Takashi Watanabe, Tsukasa Tannai, Yôichi Kotabe, Yoshinori Kanada, Yukiyoshi Hane|
|In-between Animation||Daijirou Sakamoto, Junko Yano, Kazuhiro Ikeda, Kazuhisa Nagai, Kazuyoshi Yaginuma, Kiyo Mizutani, Kiyoko Saito, Koji Iwai, Mahiro Maeda, Masako Kondou, Sachiko Tada, Taidō Hanafusa, Taira Sanuki, Takayo Mizutani, Umanosuke Iida, Yasushi Tanizawa, Yoshiko Nakamura, Yoshiko Sasaki, Yukari Watanabe, Yukie Takahashi, Yumiko Taguchi|
|Background Art||Hiroko Murai, Kaoru Chiba, Kazuhiro Kinoshita, Kazuo Ebisawa, Kazuo Okada, Kimiko Shimono, Kuniko Nishimura, Masaki Yoshizaki, Miyoshi Takanami, Satoshi Miura, Tatsuo Aoki, atsuo Imamura, Tetsuto Shimono, Tokue Okazaki, Toshiro Nozaki, Yoshiko Togashi, Yuuko Sugiyama|
|Color Design||Michiyo Yasuda, Fukuo Suzuki|
|Art Director||Mitsuki Nakamura|
|Sound Director||Shigeharu Shiba|
|Executive Producers||Michio Kondou, Toru Hara, Yasuyoshi Tokuma|
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind VHS - Tokuma Shoten / Tokuma Japan / Tokuma Communications 148AH-3 1984, March 21, 2008, Release
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind Beta --Tokuma Shoten / Tokuma Japan / Tokuma Communications 148AB-5003 Released on March 21, 1984
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind LD - Tokuma Shoten / Tokuma Japan / Tokuma Communications 98LX-1 1984 April 21 Release
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind VHD --Tokuma Shoten / Tokuma Japan / Japan ABC 98HD-1 Released on April 21, 1984
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind VHS - Buena Vista Home Entertainment Released September 19, 1997
- DVD (Regular Edition)-Buena Vista Home Entertainment Released November 19, 2003
- DVD (Nausicaa Figure Set) --Buena Vista Home Entertainment Released November 19, 2003
- DVD (Collector's Box) --Buena Vista Home Entertainment Released on November 19, 2003
- DVD (Director Hayao Miyazaki's Works) -Walt Disney Studios Japan Released on July 2, 2014
- Blu-ray Disc --Walt Disney Studios Japan Released on July 14, 2010
- Blu-ray Disc (Director Hayao Miyazaki) --Walt Disney Studios Japan Released on July 2, 2014
- Animage Comics Wide Format Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 1 (August 25, 1983) ISBN 4-19-773581-2
- Animage Comics Wide Format Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 2 (August 25, 1983) ISBN 4-19-773582-0
- Animage Comics Wide Format Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 3 (January 20, 1985) ISBN 4-19-775514-7
- Animage Comics Wide Format Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 4 (May 1, 1987) ISBN 4-19-777551-2
- Animage Comics Wide Format Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 5 (June 30, 1991) ISBN 4-19-771061-5
- Animage Comics Wide Format Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 6 (December 20, 1993) ISBN 4-19-773120-5
- Animage Comics Wide Format Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 7 (January 15, 1995) ISBN 4-19-770025-3
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind Luxury book (top / bottom) (November 30, 1996) ISBN 4-19-860561-0 . ISBN 4-19-860562-9
- Luxury book "Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind" (2 volumes) (November 30, 1996) ISBN 4-19-869901-1
- Animage Comics Wide Format Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind All 7 Volumes (August 25, 2002) ISBN 4-19-210002-9
- Animage Comics Wide Format Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind Tormekia Campaign Version All 7 Volumes (October 31, 2003) ISBN 4-19-210010-X
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind-Picture Conte (1 ・ 2) (Animage Bunko) (March 31, 1984) ISBN 4-19-669522-1 . ISBN 4-19-669523-X
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind (Studio Ghibli Storyboard Complete Works 1) (June 30, 2001) ISBN 4-19-861376-1
- THE ART OF Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind (Edited by Animage Editorial Department) (June 20, 1984) ISBN 4-19-814560-1
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind- Shun Miyazaki Watercolor Painting Collection (Ghibli THE ART Series) (September 5, 1996) ISBN 4-19-810001-2
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind GUIDE BOOK (Animage Special Edition Romantic Album) (March 1984, Reprint July 2010) ISBN 4-19-720309-8
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind-Roman Album (May 1984, Reprinted May 2001) ISBN 4-19-720155-9
- Kodansha Anime Comics 61 Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 1 (April 11, 1984) ISBN 4-06-174461-5
- Kodansha Anime Comics 62 Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 2 (April 25, 1984) ISBN 4-06-174462-3
- Kodansha Anime Comics 63 Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 3 (May 18, 1984) ISBN 4-06-174463-1
- Kodansha Anime Comics 64 Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 4 (May 30, 1984) ISBN 4-06-174464-X
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind (above) (Tokuma Anime Picture Book) (March 31, 1988) ISBN 4-19-703624-8
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind (below) (Tokuma Anime Picture Book) (March 31, 1988) ISBN 4-19-703625-6
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 1 (Animage Film Comic) (October 30, 1990) ISBN 4-19-770101-2
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 2 (Animage Film Comic) (November 20, 1990) ISBN 4-19-770113-6
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 3 (Animage Film Comic) (November 20, 1990) ISBN 4-19-770114-4
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind 4 (Animage Film Comic) (December 20, 1990) ISBN 4-19-770120-9
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind Tormekia Campaign Version (Animage Film Comic Volume 4) (October 31, 2003) ISBN 4-19-210011-8
- Studio Ghibli Works Related Materials Catalog I (Ghibli THE ART Series) (June 30, 1996) ISBN 4-19-860525-4
- Ghibli Textbook 1 Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind (Bungei Ghibli Bunko) (April 10, 2013) ISBN 978-4-16-812000-8
- Cinema Comic 1 Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind (Bungei Ghibli Bunko) (April 10, 2013) ISBN 978-4-16-812100-5
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind Image Album Bird People ... (Cassette 25AN-13 / LP ANL-1013) Tokuma Japan Communications (November 25, 1983)
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind Image Album Tori no Hito ... (CD TKCA-72716) Tokuma Japan Communications ((Reissued August 25, 2004) (Original CD / November 25, 1983))
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind Symphony Edition ~ The Legend of the Wind ~ (CD TKCA-72718) Tokuma Japan Communications ((Reissued August 25, 2004) (Original CD / February 25, 1984))
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind Drama (CD TKCA-70135) Tokuma Japan Communications ((Reissued July 21, 1993) (Original CD / February 25, 1984))
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind To the Far Land ... (CD TKCA-72717) Tokuma Japan Communications ((Reissued August 25, 2004) (Original CD / March 25, 1984))
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind BEST (CD) Tokuma Japan Communications (November 24, 1986)
- Nausicaa Hi-Tech Series in the Valley of the Wind (CD TKCA-72719) Tokuma Japan Communications ((Reissued August 25, 2004) (Original CD / July 21, 1993))
- (Theme song) Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind (CD) Narumi Yasuda, C / W "Fairy of the Wind" Tokuma Japan Communications ((Reissue CD / October 2004) (Original record / June 1985))
- Piano Music Collection Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind Image Album & soundtrack Kay M. P. Kikubaiban (June 2008)
- Studio Ghibli Hayao Miyazaki & Joe Hisaishi Santra BOX [Box set, Limited Edition] (CD) Tokuma Japan Communications (July 16, 2014)
Toys, models, etc.
- Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind Compact Cassette (TYPE-1 Normal Position / C-46) Tokuma Communications Part No. TTC-1 ~ 3
- In the mid-1980s, TEAC and others released it, and the cassette tape in the normal position using a hub similar to an open reel, which was popular with audiophiles, was sold for 560 yen. Only C-46 (46 minutes round trip / 23 minutes one way) is sold.
- Plastic models and jumbo figures such as Nausicaa, Ohmu, Möwe glider, and Gunship have been released by Tsukuda Hobby . In 2011, Bandai released the high-end toy "FORMANIA Gunship".
- A model gun that reproduces Nausicaa's long gun was sold by Buena Vista. Produced by Maruzen. Limited to 100 pieces, the price is 350,000 yen.
- "Starting Point (1979-1996)", Hayao Miyazaki
- Proposal to Acquire Film Rights, Hayao Miyazaki (November 1980)
- Miyazaki, Hayao (June 15 1983). Ogata, Hideo (ed.). シュナの旅 [The Journey of Shuna (in Japanese). Tokyo: Tokuma Shoten.]
- Animage Editorial Department, "The Road to Nausicaa," "The Art of Nausicaa," Tokuma Shoten, 1984, p.182.
- Kano (2006).
- Hideo Ogata, "Shoot That Flag," Animation "Blood Record," Oakla Publishing, 2004, p.177.
- Makoto Kanazawa , Yasuyoshi Tokuma, Bunka Tsushinsha, 2010, pp. 130-131.
- "Blown by the Wind", Toshio Suzuki. Published by Chuokoron-Shinsha
- Suzuki (2005), p.72. Suzuki (2008), p.42.
- Kano (2006), p.42.
- Ogata (2004), p.183.
- Yuichiro Oguro "25th Takashi Watanabe " "I want to talk to this person Anime Professional Work 1998-2001" Asukashinsha , November 2, 2006, ISBN 4-87031-758-3 , p. 415.
- "Starting Point (1979-1996), Pp. 392-393
- "On Completing Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind - The Story Continues", Iwanami Shoten (June 1994)
- "Roman Album Extra 61 Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind" Tokuma Shoten, 1984, p.130
- "How was that masterpiece born? "Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind" The secret story of the shocking production!", Hatena Blog
- "Decoding Nausicaa - The Criticality of Utopia" (Interview with Shinichiro Inaba and Hayao Miyazaki, p.211 and p.215)
- "I learned a little more about Nausicaa than a while ago. Long Interview Hayao Miyazaki" "Comic Box" VOL.98 January 1995 issue, p.21.
- "The Wind Rises Hayao Miyazaki (Director) x Hideaki Anno (Starring) x Yumi Matsutoya (Theme Song), 90 Minutes Talk!" " Kinema Junpo " Early August 2013 issue, p.66.
- "Director Hayao Miyazaki: Nausicaa sequel" No "Main remarks at the retirement interview" " Mainichi Shimbun " September 6, 2013.
- Toru Iwakiri "Modern Portrait Joe Hisaishi Composer" "AERA" November 1, 2010, Asahi Shimbun Publishing, p.72.
- "Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind Image Album" Liner Notes.
- Oricon Chart Book LP, 1970-2001" Original Confidence, 1990, p. 332. ISBN 4871310256
- "Oricon Yearbook 1985 Edition" Original Confidence, 1985, p18.