For the 1937 novel by Tatsuo Hori, see The Wind Has Risen.

The Wind Rises (風立ちぬ Kaze Tachinu) is an animated film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki and produced by Studio Ghibli for the Nippon Television Network, Dentsu, Hakuhodo DY Media Partners, Walt Disney Japan, Mitsubishi, Toho and KDDI and distributed by Toho. It was released on July 20, 2013 in Japan and February 21, 2014 in America.

It is based on the serialized manga of the same name, written and illustrated by Miyazaki on Model Graphix magazine and Tatsuo Hori's acclaimed 1936-37 novel Kaze Tachinu (風立ちぬ – , The Wind Has Risen). It traces the life of Jirô Horikoshi, an aircraft engineer who invented the famous "Zero" fighter, which was used by the Japanese navy during World War II. The film and the manga also chronicles the life of Jiro’s wife, Naoko, a fictional character from Hori's original novel. The story describes the tragic fate of the young couple in the maelstrom of prewar Japan, and depicts Taishô and Shôwa Japan from the economic hardships in the 1920's through the rise of militarism in the 1930's.[5]

The film's theatrical poster contains the dedication, "In honor of Jirô Horikoshi and Tatsuo Hori.".

Its production was chronicled in the 2013 documentary The Kingdom of Dreams and Madness, released by Toho and the NHK feature 1,000 Days Record / Declaration of Retirement[6]. It was Miyazaki's final film before his retirement in 2013. However, in 2017, Miyazaki announced he had come out of retirement to direct How Do You Live?, which is expected to be released in 2023.

According to Miyazaki, the "wind" in the title is not "something that blows refreshingly, but a terrifying wind that roars and shakes trees after the nuclear power plant exploded, so I later spoke about having to try to live..."

Plot

A Journey

"Mr. Caproni, may I ask you a question? I know I can't be a pilot because of my eyesight. If I'm not a pilot, can I still design airplanes?"
"Japanese boy, I've been around planes all my life. You know how many I've flown? None! Not any one! Many can fly a plane but I design them. I create airplanes and so can you. An aeronautical engineer!"
"Yes!"
"But remember this, Japanese boy. Airplanes are not tools for war. They are not for making money. Airplanes are beautiful dreams. Engineers turn dreams into reality."
—Caproni speaking with Jirô

Caproni appearing to young Jirô Horikoshi in his dreams.

In the movie, Jirō starts out as a young boy living in a provincial town in Japan, who dreams of a day when he could design and possibly fly airplanes. However, much to his dismay, his eye-sight deteriorates rapidly, preventing Jirô from ever piloting an aircraft. His hopeless longing even leads to dreams where he would fall from an airplane he was piloting, as his eyes could not withstand the pressure of high altitudes. Desperate to find a way to overcome his weakness and follow his goal, he seeks help and guidance from Giovanni Caproni, a famous Italian aircraft designer who appears to Jirô in his dreams. Caproni encourages Jirô to become an aeronautical engineer, as he could then follow his desire to design airplanes without actually having to fly one.

A Heart Aflutter

"Nice catch."
"You speak French?"
"Le vent se lève. It's a French poem."
"Il faut tenter de vivre."
"The wind is rising. We must try to live."
—Jirô flirting with Naoko

Jirô carries Naoko's maid to safety during the Great Kantô Earthquake.

Determined to become an aeronautical engineer one day, Jirô studies the principles of aviation throughout his academic years, continuously seeking guidance and encouragement from Caproni along the way. By the time he is an adult, he is able to enter the University of Tokyo to study aeronautics. Boarding a train, he makes his way to the Kanto region of Japan. During the journey, he meets Naoko, a young girl traveling with her maid, for the first time. An unprecedented, deadly earthquake suddenly hits the Kanto region, leaving the city in devastation and fire. The passengers inside the train flee from the train, as the damaged boiler threatens to explode. As Jirô starts to leave, he notices that Naoko's maid had broken her leg during the commotion caused by the earthquake. Strapping his slide-ruler to the side of her leg, Jirô leads both Naoko and her maid to safety. Jiro's actions win affection and gratefulness from Naoko and her maid, but they can not express their thankfulness to him, as Jirô leaves without telling them who he is.

The Falcon Project

"Jiro, we cannot be stuck in the past forever. We're already 20 years behind!"
"It's as if we were a hare chasing a tortoise with a 20-year lead. But in our little story, the hare doesn't sleep."
—Honjō speaking with Jirô at Junker's hanger

Jirô supervising the early prototypes of the "Zero" fighter.

Years later, Jirô works as an aircraft manufacturer and designer for a company in Nagoya, Japan. His first assignment to build a fighter with a design team ends in failure, and the company is forced to give up its contract to a rival company. Redirecting its attention to the designing of a heavy bomber, the company sends Jirô to Germany to study the technical advances of the German Junker aircraft designs. Jirô, with difficulty, succeeds in procuring the necessary designs from the grudging Germans and returns to Japan. Some years later, Jirô is reassigned to a fighter project funded by the Imperial Japanese Navy as the design team's chief designer. This project also ends in failure, causing Jirô to fall into a state of severe disappointment. The company, anxious to have their chief designer back in form, sends Jirô away to a summer resort to recover. There, he meets Naoko once again, now grown into a beautiful young woman. The two soon fall in love, sharing a passionate romance. However, when Jirô proposes to Naoko, she refuses, saying that she was inflicted with tuberculosis. She earnestly entreats Jirô to wait for their marriage until she is cured, which Jirô gently accepts.

Jirô returns to the company after his vacation time expires. He is then assigned to another fighter project sponsored by the Navy as the chief aircraft designer. In order to avoid the attention of the Japanese secret police, the company sets Jiro's lodgings at one of his supervisor's residences. With the help of his design team, Jirô plans the construction of Japan's future naval fighter, regarding it as a revolutionary step in aeronautics. 

A Parting

"Don't let go."
"No, I won't let go."
"I need a cigarette. Can I let go for a minute?
"No, smoke here."
"It's not good for you."
"I don't care."
—Naoko speaking Jirô while holding hands

Naoko and Jirô enjoying some time together.

Meanwhile, Naoko's health deteriorates rapidly, eventually causing her to have a lung hemorrhage, much to Jiro's dismay. To receive treatment, she journeys to a sanatorium in the mountains where she stays for a long period of time. However, Naoko can not bear to be apart from Jirô. Furthermore, she senses that her end is near. Thus, she journeys to Nagoya to see Jirô one last time. The couple requests a traditional marriage from Jiro's host, and they spend a brief, yet happy time together despite the dire warnings given by Jiro's sister about Naoko's possibly horrific impending death.

Jirô eventually completes his fighter design, building the Mitsubishi A5M. Before he leaves to spend the next few nights at the site of the test flight, he and Naoko share their last moment together. While he is at the site, Naoko leaves Nagoya, intending to go back to the sanatorium. She knows that she is going to die, and does not wish Jirô to witness the last terrible moments of her life as she succumbs to the disease.

A Kingdom of Dreams

"Someone is waiting for you."
"Naoko..."
"She's been waiting here for a long time."
"You must live, darling. You must live..."
"She was beautiful, like the wind."
"Thank you. Thank you."
"You must live."
—Caproni speaking with Jirô about Naoko's parting words

Jirô and Caproni meeting for the last time. He sees a vision of Naoko in the distance.

The test flight goes well. Jirô and his superiors watch as a naval pilot flies the new aircraft to astonishing speeds of 240 knots, a groundbreaking record in flight speeds during that time. As Jirô proudly watches his creation touch down onto the ground, he feels a strong gust of wind from the distant mountains. As he stands against the wind, he senses Naoko's death, leaving him in stunned, anxious silence.

After the end of the Second World War, Jirô revisits his dreams as he did several times in his life, to meet Caproni for, possibly, the last time. Jirô expresses his regret and sorrow of the destruction and devastation his "Zero" fighter had caused during the war. Caproni comforts him, saying that "his dream was nonetheless realized" and that airplanes "are beautiful, cursed dreams". Caproni then directs Jiro's attention beyond the grassy hill they were standing on. Jirô, stunned with joy, sees Naoko coming towards him, holding a parasol in her hand. Waving to Jirô, she calls to him, "you must live, darling...you must live!" Jirô, barely able to speak, nods his head. Her last message complete, she rises with the wind, vanishing from sight. Continuing his walk with Caproni, Jirô looks to the sky and the wind, taking his wife's words deeply to heart.

Characters

Jiro Horikoshi (堀越 二郎 , Horikoshi Jirō)
Hideaki Anno (Japanese), Joseph Gordon-Levitt (Disney)
The main protagonist of the film. Born to a wealthy family, he has an enigmatic personality and has a loose concept of being on time. Jiro is a dreamer, and his mind is constantly filled with airplanes and their designs. He has a serious demeanor, and can be sincere to a fault. He has unique sense of humor. His favorite food is mackerel, and his cigarette is "cherry-flavored".
He yearns to fly an airplane, but his myopia prevented him from pursuing his dream. In his dreams, he meets German engineer Caproni, whom he greatly respects, and aspires to become a aviation designer. He takes up aeronautical engineering at Tokyo Imperial University, and he has a fateful encounter with Naoko Satomi during the Great Kanto Earthquake. Following his graduation, he begins designing aircraft for Mitsubishi. A crucial test flight with the Mitsubishi 1MF10 ends in disaster due to a broken vertical stabilizer. He decides to take a break and reunites with Naoko, whose tuberculosis had taken a turn for the worse and had been seeking at a Sanatorium in Karuizawa, Kitasaku District, Nagano Prefecture. The two are wed shortly after, but their time together is brief. Soon after, Jiro returns and begins work on his ninth prototype one-seater fighter craft - the design that would eventually become the Zero fighter.
Naoko Satomi (里見 菜穂子 , Satomi Nahoko)
Miori Takimoto (Japanese), Emily Blunt (Disney)
The heroine. She's bright and has an innocent personality. On the other hand, she's brave despite her predicament. The daughter of a wealthy family living in Yoyogi-Uehara, Tokyo (before the Great Kanto Earthquake, it was known as Ueno-Hirokoji). She enjoys sketching and painting.
Jiro catches her hat during a train ride to Tokyo. She falls for Jiro, who helped her maid after she was injured during the Great Kanto Earthquake derailed their train. She sends him a slide ruler as a token of thanks after he uses his as a makeshift splint. However, due to circumstances beyond their control, the two would not meet for some time.
They have another chance encounter in Karuizawa, where Naoko was staying for treatment. Despite her worsening illness, he confessed his love for her and asked her father for her hand in marriage. The two would enjoy their wedding bliss until her illness worsened further and she was admitted to the Fujimi Kogen Sanatorium. She would put on a brave face whenever they would see each other, careful not to show symptoms of her illness. She supported Jiro as much as she could, until her complications worsened and she passed away.
Her character is based on Ayako Yano, wife of author Tatsuo Hori. Yano suffered from tuberculosis and died while seeking treatment at a Sanatorium. Hori would later write a novel in honor of her called "Naoko". Similar characters and situations can also be seen in Hori's novel "Beautiful Village".
Kiro Honjo (本庄 , Honjō)
Hidetoshi Nishijima (Japanese), John Krasinski (Disney)
Jiro's best friend since he was at Tokyo Imperial University. He later becomes his colleague and rival aviation engineer. He's a nihilist and is disgusted by Japan's primitive technological state. He's a heavy smoker.
He joins Jiro to study abroad in Germany. Unlike Jiro who was ordered to return to Tokyo, he remained in Germany and received aid from Junkers. Partly due to that, he becomes involved in the production of bombers. He was in charge of designing the eighth prototype, a special reconnaissance aircraft and the ninth protoype land attack aircraft (later the Mitsubishi G3M / 96-type land-based attack bomber aircraft).
Kurokawa (黒川, Kurokawa)
Masahiko Nishimura (Japanese), Martin Short (Disney)
Jiro and Honjo's boss. He's impatient and difficult to work with. He gave the recommendation for Jiro to study abroad after evaluating his skills. In order to save Jiro from being incarcerated by the Special Higher Police (a special taskforce meant to arrest anarchists, communists and socialists), he hid him while on a business trip. He acted as matchmaker between Jiro and Naoko.
Castorp (カストルプ , Kasutorupu)
Steve Alpert (Japanese), Werner Herzog (Disney)
A German staying in Karuizawa. He became witness to Jiro and Naoko as they began courting each other. He is not happy with the rise of Nazi Germany and has a pessimistic outlook on the future of Japan as it seeks isolationism. He enjoys Franz Schubert's music.
Kayo Horikoshi (堀越 加代 , Horikoshi Kayo)
Mirai Shida (Japanese), Mae Whitman (Disney)
Jiro's younger sister. She's always admired her older brother. She wishes to move to Tokyo to study medicine, but her father refused. She soon became friends with Naoko and showed compassion towards her, blaming Jiro for her medical condition her lonely life. When she visited the Sanatorium as a nurse, she witnessed Naoko in an accident. When she finds the letter meant for Jiro from Naoko, she realized its true intentions and bent down weeping.
Caproni (カプローニ , Kapurōni)
Nomura Mansai (Japanese), Stanley Tucci (Disney)
Modeled after Gianni Caproni, the founder of Caproni. A real-life figure who meets up with Jiro in his dreams, encouraging him on his dream but warning of its many unintended consequences.
Junkers (ユンカース , Yunkāsu)
A world-renowned airplane producer. When Jiro and Honjō visited Germany, they met in the hangar of Junkers Aircraft Manufacturing. Later, he was ousted from the company after criticizing the Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler.

Source Material

Inspiration and Setting

"Le vent se lève!... Il faut tenter de vivre!" ("The wind is rising!... We must try to live!")" — Paul Valéry, "Le Cimetière Marin" (The Graveyard By The Sea).[7][8]

Paul Valéry's 1922 poem Le Cimetière Marin or The Graveyard by the Sea.

The film is set in Tokyo before and after the Great Kantō Earthquake in 1923, and several locations in Nagano Prefecture, namely in Karuizawa and the Fujimi Kogen Sanatorium[9]. Unlike previous Ghibli works, The Wind Rises is based on the real-life experiences of author Tatsuo Hori and aviation engineer Jirô Horikoshi. Regaring Hori's work and its impact:

There are many works from local artists which reflect melancholy and sadness. However, the works of Tatsuo Hori are among the very few which were created during the Showa period (the early 1930s). Reminiscent of his work is the modern writings of Haruki Murakami and Kawabata Yasunari. The only difference is that most of Murakami’s work is translated to more than 50 languages, including English, Chinese, and more. Interestingly (and coincidentally), the main character from Murakami’s most popular work (Norwegian Wood) is also named Naoko who also goes to a secluded sanatorium in the mountains, just like the main character from The Wind has Risen. Both works explore pain, nostalgia, longing, and sadness caused by an unbearable, unpredictable, and irreversible loss.  Both novels have melancholic and nostalgic vibes.[10]

Tatsuo Hori's novel Kaze Tachinu (1936-37).

Additionally in the film, Jirô speaks with Giovanni Gianni Caproni in his dreams. Caproni founded an aircraft manufacturing company called "Caproni" in Italy in 1908. Much of the film's setting was notably developed by Miyazaki while he was listening to the theme song Hikōki-gumo (Contrail), a 1973 single sung by Yumi Matsutoya.

The film's opening is set in the backyard of the birthplace of Jirô Horikoshi while the film's final scene is set in the forest of Karuizawa, where Tatsuo Hori died (Hori himself succumbed to tuberculosis in 1953). The film ends with words "End", set against the background of the cloudy sky, and pays homage to both of them.

Hori's memorial at Karuizawa, Nagano Prefecture.

When speaking about Tatsuo Hori, Miyazaki recalls, "I read (his novels) when I was young, but it didn't really come to my mind. I found it at an antiquarian bookstore and happened to read it again. After reading it repeatedly, I realized that Utsukushii Mura (Beautiful Village , (美しい村), 1933) and Kaze Tachinu (The Wind Has Risen , (風立ちぬ), 1936–37) were wonderful. I was spending time in Oiwake (Karuizawa, Nagano Prefecture). I think spending that cold winter in Oiwake was more than just for the body (of those who got sick)."

Issues with Adaptation

"Why am I making a film about the inventor of the Zero fighter plane? That's the answer I need to find... One thing is for sure, I don't want to do the same as before. At my age, this is the moment when I want to do something more technically difficult, which may be less obvious for the public to accept. That's how old directors are."
—Hayao Miyazaki
The_Wind_Rises_-_Flying_Through_Town_Clip

The Wind Rises - Flying Through Town Clip

According to French Ghibli fansite Buta Connection, the NHK documentary 1,000 Days Record / Declaration of Retirement highlighted one fact: Never has Hayao Miyazaki been so unsure of himself in choosing to adapt this story.

Initially based on a forty page manga about Jirô Horikoshi's aeronautical engineering feats, the story seemed so interesting and so innovative to producer Toshio Suzuki that the latter kept pushing Hayao Miyazaki to develop it further into animation. When the decision was made to produce the film, Miyazaki himself constantly asks himself this question: 'How do you depict a character, admittedly passionate about aviation, but also indirectly responsible for the deaths of tens of thousands of people during World War II?' Miyazaki's own wife also disagreed with him, suggesting instead suggesting working on something closer to My Neighbor Totoro. But Totoro is a film that has already been made,” protests the director.

Photograph of Ayako Yano, the inspiration behind the character Naoko in the film.

The solution found by Miyazaki is simple: He would add in an emotional thread of the love story between Naoko and Jirô. However, he does not choose to show a fictitious love story, which would have watered down the historical reality and disempowered Jirô by making him more endearing. Instead, he weaved in the true love story of the author Tatsuo Hori with his wife Ayako Yano who suffered from pulmonary tuberculous. Yano died of tuberculosis barely a year after their wedding, and who he accompanied to her death after a stay of a few months at a sanatorium at the foot of Mt. Yatsugatake in 1935.

Naoko's Disease

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When tuberculosis develops, it causes fever and bloody sputum, gradually destroying the lungs and reducing the ability to breathe.

During the period The Wind Rises was set, the disease was considered incurable and had a high mortality rate. At the time, patients were sent to a sanatorium in the highlands such as Karuizawa, where they were given Open-Air Therapy (大気(安静)療法). This involved patients resting on a clear plateau where they inhaled the mountain's clear air. The film depicts this by showing scenes of nurses arranging beds outdoors and letting patients lie there.[11]

Analysis

"The central question of our time is now 'How do we live in the face of the uncertainties of our time? The wind rises means 'How to live when there is wind blowing?' This is the real meaning of our film."
—Hayao Miyazaki during the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake

This addition allowed the setting of

A signed photograph of Jirô in 1962.

Japan to be placed in a concrete reality: the disease was then wreaking havoc and those who were infected were condemned to an almost inevitable death. It also deepened the character of Jirô: cold in appearance, very stiff in stature, stingy in his words; he is nevertheless a passionate and whole character both professionally and in love. He knows full well that his planes will be used in war, just as he is aware that his affair with Naoko is doomed. The fact that tuberculosis is a transmittable disease adds weight to scenes where Jirô and Naoko spend time together.

Jirô and his team (as seen in this 1937 photograph) developed several models of the Zero fighter.

However, he decides to live his choices fully, to the end, despite the doubts, despite the weight of guilt and sadness. By wanting to achieve love in its purest form, by dreaming of seeing his perfect plane flying in the sky, Jirô also accepts to destroy what he holds most dear.

This film is not revisionist because it shows that Jirô is aware of the use of his planes. Through the German character Castorp, Miyazaki also condemns Japan's aggressive and murderous policy in Asia. Jirô himself recognizes his wrongs and his responsibility in the throes of war. By staging the fictionalized life of Jirô Horikoshi, Miyazaki quite simply portrays man in all his complexity and in all his nuances: passionate, destructive, amorous, imaginative, cruel, selfish and generous."[12]

Behind the Scenes

Development

"There are plenty of reasons not to make this movie. But the truth is, I want to do it..."
—Hayao Miyazaki

Kaze Tachinu originally began life as a comic published on Model Grafix magazine.

The Wind Rises was written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki and his first film since Ponyo on the Cliff by the Sea in 2008. Prior to the film's production, the tireless director managed to produce two animated short films, Mr. Dough and the Egg Princess (2010) and Treasure Hunting (2011) and wrote the screenplay for a third short, A Sumo Wrestler's Tail (2010) for the Ghibli Museum. He also supervised and co-wrote the screenplay for The Secret World of Arrietty (2010) and From Up on Poppy Hill (2011).

Miyazaki began to conceive a story to illustrate the life of Jirô Horikoshi in 2008.[13] He published the story as a manga series in the monthly magazine Model Graphix from April 2009 to January 2010 (with a break in October 2009), with the title borrowed from Tatsuo Hori's novel The Wind Has Risen [14], whose title is taken from Le Cimetière Marin (Graveyard by the Sea, 1920) by French poet Paul Valéry. "I drew this manga as a hobby."[15]

Naoko's name was taken from Tatsuo Hori's novel, Naoko.

The story in the manga follows the historical account of Horikoshi's aircraft development up to 1935 (the year of the Mitsubishi A5M maiden flight),[14] and intertwines with fictional encounters with Caproni and Naoko Satomi.[14] The scenes with Naoko in the manga were adapted from the novel The Wind Has Risen, in which Tatsuo Hori wrote about his life experience with his fiancée, Ayako Yano, before she died from tuberculosis. The name "Naoko Satomi" was borrowed from the female protagonist of another novel by Tatsuo Hori, Naoko. [14]

An obvious allusion to Naoko's tuberculosis, Miyazaki's mother also contracted the disease which he had previously portrayed in My Neighbor Totoro. But his family past also resurfaces through the Zero plane itself: in an interview with Télérama (n° 3338, January 4, 2014), Miyazaki explained that this film was a way to reconcile with his own father. The latter had provided rudders for the Zero plane. Miyazaki, born in 1941 and anti-militarist, argued many times with his father over this. By staging Jirô, he wants to try to understand his father's motivations, without judging him, without condemning him.

Castorp's appearance is based on long-time Studio Ghibli employee Steve Alpert. Alpert was once the director of Ghibli's Overseas Business Division. Although he left the company in 2011 due to personal reasons, he worked hard to expand Studio Ghibli overseas. He released his memoirs in 2020.

Characters frequently discuss Thomas Mann's novel The Magic Mountain, and, in a letter to Naoko, Jirô names his fleeing German friend "Mr. Castorp" after its protagonist.[14][16] The character himself is a caricature of former Ghibli employee Steve Alpert who returned to Japan to voice the character.[17]

After the release of Ponyo, Miyazaki wanted his next film to be a sequel, Ponyo on the Cliff by the Sea II, but producer Toshio Suzuki proposed to adapt the manga The Wind Rises instead. At first, Miyazaki rejected the proposal because he created the manga as a hobby and considered its subjects not suitable for children, the traditional audience of the feature animations from Studio Ghibli. According to Buta Connection, Miyazaki explained, "For me, drawing this manga is just a hobby. Making a movie about it is simply out of the question. Entertainment must be made for children. We must not make a film that is only intended for an adult audience."

Stills from the NHK documentary which features the inception of "The Wind Rises".

However, Miyazaki changed his objection after a staff member suggested that "children should be allowed to be exposed to subjects they are not familiar with". Miyazaki was inspired to make the film after reading a quote from Horikoshi: "All I wanted to do was to make something beautiful".[18] At the end of 2010, producer Toshio Suzuki said, “I made my initial suggestion to (Miya-san) in the summer of 2010. Miya-san and I continued to discuss this. I remember it was during fall when he gave me his approval and was going to try and see if he could make a movie of it. He then asked me to leave him until the end of the year."

In early 2011, the director decided to adopt the project as his new film. “I will never forget the day the decision was taken to move forward on this project,” Suzuki continues. “It was December 28, 2010. Miya-san immediately started drawing the e-konte (detailed storyboards) at the start of the new year. Very quickly, he finished the parts describing Jirô's childhood, until he met Naoko, right in the middle of the Great Kantô Earthquake in 1923." According to the NHK documentary, another factor that may have played into Miyazaki moving forward was when his longtime collaborator Isao Takahata announced the production of The Tale of the Princess Kaguya.

Production

The_Wind_Rises_Movie_CLIP_-_Earthquake_(2014)_-_Studio_Ghibli_Movie_HD

The Wind Rises Movie CLIP - Earthquake (2014) - Studio Ghibli Movie HD

Production began in July 2011, a few months after the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. Two hundred staff were assigned to work on the two-hour animated film, which required 160,000 drawings, each checked and finalized by Hayao Miyazaki. Miyazaki was determined in depicting Japan during the Taishô era and the beginning of the Shôwa era as accurately as possible. The biggest challenge Miyazaki presented himself was the depiction of large crowd scenes, “The characters who make up the crowd around the main characters are not just anyone,” explains Miyazaki. “These are characters who have their own existence within the film. You should not animate them just any way, but really bring them to life." Thus, just for a four-second seconds, it took no less than 1 year and 3 months of work for a team of animators to come to the end. Miyazaki is happy with the result.

Production at Studio Ghibli had to weather major disruptions caused by the Tōhoku earthquake in 2011. Miyazaki demanded his animators go into work despite difficult circumstances.

On February 18, 2012, an unexpected event delays the production of the film. Miyazaki remained locked in his private workshop only to come out two days later not feeling well. Suzuki advised him to go see a doctor out of caution, but the director refused, saying it was a waste of time. “Even if I die, I have to leave all my e-konte. Otherwise, it's a little shameful." His friend and director Hideaki Anno would have said to him: " If you disappear, at least finish your e-konte and I will finish the film."

Miyazaki refused to move away from production, because above all, he had Isao Takahata in mind. Takahata's project, which was being worked on twenty minutes away from Ghibli's main production studio, gave motivation to Miyazaki.

Miyazaki struggled in defining Jirô's character and the film's final act.

By October 2012, Miyazaki continued to struggled with the morality of the film, as well as its ending. Miyazaki had trouble finding Jirô's feelings in the face of the paradox of his dream of wanting to create a plane, which in the end will turn out to be a war plane. He also concluded that the Zero managing to fly is not necessarily an appropriate end for the film. And he always asks the same question: "Jirô is building a war plane." What final should we write? What satisfactory end should the film end with, beyond the completion of this plane?". Miyazaki struggled with creating a satisfying finale, "From the beginning, I knew it would not be easy. But this is really difficult."

Hayao Miyazaki talks about the picture Promin's Light (プロミンの光), presented in honor of Osamu Sagawa in 2019. One of Miyazaki's advocacies is to shine light on the plight of those with leprosy, which he featured in Princess Mononoke.[19] For The Wind Rises, it was those who suffered from tuberculosis.

During one weekend, Hayao Miyazaki went to see a photo exhibition at the Tama Zenshôen National Sanatorium. Leprosy could apparently not be transmitted to others. But at the time, he saw how the sick were kept away from society. Despite this forced isolation, the suffering tried to live with dignity. This visit knocked Miyazaki down a bit. On the way home, he and his wife didn't talk about the exhibit at all. But through it, the director draws the lesson that one should not live his life in half measures.

Suddenly, Miyazaki began to retouching Jirô's expressions on certain shots put aside by the animators. Miyazaki thought that Jirô must feel something stronger about his failures. He changes his face, including baring his teeth, to accentuate his determination to move forward. His face becomes more precise. “For the people of that time, war was not a choice,” he explains. “It was like that. In other words, it's like now. Every era knows upheavals, but even with that, one must live fully."

Miyazaki, having visited the Tama Zenshôen National Sanatorium, helped inspire him in defining Jirô's resolve in the final act.

He also goes back to the film's intension note and writes: "With each upheaval in an era, everyone's dreams are perverted. The questions do not necessarily find answers. But despite life's obstacles, you still have to live with strength."

In time, Miyazaki shifted his focus on the love story between Jirô and Naoko, as Naoko's condition worsens at the sanatorium. With these romantic scenes, the director also hopes to give the film another direction and not just offer the story of a man who wants to create a plane in the context of war.

Dubbing

"Thank you all for your work. I am a little ashamed to admit it, but this is the first time that I cried for a film that I have created."
—Hayao Miyazaki during the film's premiere

Hideaki Anno and Miyazaki share a special bond, as the former views him as a mentor.

According to Buta Connection, at this stage of production, however, there is still one unanswered question: who will dub Jirô? For Hayao Miyazaki, Jirô is an intellectual. “At that time, intelligent people spoke clearly and with a confident voice,” he explains. “Jiro doesn't speak much because he's brilliant. When you're like him, you don't talk unnecessarily. He is therefore economical in words, but it is not because he is introverted. He's a complex person.

If the characteristics of character Jirô are clear for everybody, the team, however, found no professional doubler that matched his personality. "Maybe we can turn to someone who doesn't come from the dubbing world?" "Suzuki went on, “Like (Hideaki) Anno, for example. It would be interesting to do a test with him." Miyazaki at first scoffed at the idea, but then began seriously considering Suzuki's suggestion.

Two days later on December 14, 2012, Anno came into the studio for his audition. Miyazaki is immediately convinced by the director's fairly neutral voice. "It's good. That's it. There aren't many people who have that kind of voice. Accept, I beg of you."

Anno at the dubbing studio with Miyazaki.

"He gave me a big smile like I hadn't seen in a long time, and he told me he wanted me to do Jiro. I knew I had no more choice!" "At the hearing, Miyazaki said that the role of Jirô was that of a rather reserved man, frugal with words" he added. "But when I looked at the e-konte, he kept talking, singing and sometimes even in French and German! He laughed at me! I finally agreed, telling myself that even if I couldn't, anyway, it would be the fault of Suzuki and Miyazaki who chose me. Nevertheless, I made all possible efforts!" "If Miya-san asks me, then I can't refuse,” Anno concludes.

Anno with Miyazaki promoting the film following its release.

Jirô is someone who created an airplane during a difficult time. Anno also creates feature films in a difficult context. For Miyazaki, it is quite obvious to bring these two personalities together. “It's such a surprising decision for all of us! Do I break the news to everyone or do I keep it a secret?" Miyazaki finally goes from office to office announcing his choice.[20] “For the recording sessions, I kept my natural voice. Miya-san was happy with it, and it made me feel that my approach to the character was the right one. Creating animation and films, or creating airplanes may give a different result for the finished product, but I am convinced that these two professions to which we are fully dedicated, Jirô like myself, is to give shape to dreams, to make them come true. I felt very close to Jirô, to what he experiences on a daily basis in that aspect," Anno explains. “To create a film of more than 2 hours is an immense work, physically and mentally. In the last scene, I was really upset."

Release

Country Release Date Format Publisher
Japan Japan.jpg July 20, 2013 Theater Toho
Japan Japan.jpg October 21, 2013 DVD Toho
USA US.jpg February 21, 2014 Theater The Walt Disney Company
USA US.jpg July 16, 2011 DVD The Walt Disney Company
THE_WIND_RISES_Trailer_-_Festival_2013

THE WIND RISES Trailer - Festival 2013

According to Buta Connection, on December 12, 2012, Studio Ghibli formalized the two new feature films in production, The Wind Rises for Hayao Miyazaki and The Tale of the Princess Kaguya for Isao Takahata, scheduled for a double release for summer 2013. This would have been the first time that the works of the two directors were released together since the release of the films My Neighbor Totoro and Grave of the Fireflies in 1988.

However, on February 4, 2013, less than two months after the official announcement of the two projects, Tôhô announced on their official website that the release of the Tale of Princess Kaguya would be delayed until November 23, 2013, due to Takahata failing to complete his storyboards. The Wind Rises was released in Japan on July 20, 2013 to 454 screens nationwide and in within two days, from July 20th and 21st, it earned 960,880,000 yen in the box office revenue. Its audience mobilization was 747,451, making it one of the most popular films of the year. As of January 28, 2014, its box office revenue has exceeded 12.20 billion yen.

The Chairman of Studio Ghibli Koji Hoshino and Naoko's voice actress Miori Takimoto at the 70th Venice International Film Festival premiere event.

The film played in competition at the 70th Venice International Film Festival. It had its official North American premiere at the 2013 Toronto International Film Festival, although a sneak preview of the film was presented earlier at the 2013 Telluride Film Festival (the film screened outside the official program).

Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures distributed the film in North America through its Touchstone Pictures banner. The film's English dubbing was directed by Gary Rydstrom. Disney held a one-week release window in the Los Angeles theatrical circuit for the film beginning on 8 November 2013, so that it could qualify for Academy Awards consideration. The film was released theatrically on 21 February 2014, in select cities, with wide release on February 28. The film was released in the United Kingdom on May 9 2014, with distribution by StudioCanal.

Home media

Walt Disney Studios Japan released the movie on Blu-ray Disc and DVD in Japan on June 18, 2014.

In the United States, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment released The Wind Rises on Blu-ray Disc and DVD on November 18, 2014. The Wind Rises release includes supplement features with storyboards, the original Japanese trailers and TV spots, a Behind the Microphone featurette with members of the English voice cast and a video from when the film was announced to be completed. The audio format for both English and Japanese language are in mono (DTS-HD MA 1.0).

Even though Disney's North American rights to Studio Ghibli films they owned expired in 2017, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment continued to distribute The Wind Rises until 2020 when GKIDS re-released the film on DVD and Blu-ray on September 22, 2020 with distribution through Shout! Factory. The reason why it took longer for a re-release than other Studio Ghibli movies was due to the fact that it was still a fairly new film at the time, and that Disney still held the rights to the film in the United States.

Music

The original 1973 single album art for Yumi Matsutoya's Hikōki-gumo (ひこうき雲).

The film also includes singer-songwriter Yumi Matsutoya's 1973 song Hikōki-gumo (ひこうき雲). Matsutoya has collaborated with Studio Ghibli before in the production for Kiki's Delivery Service, which features her songs Rouge no Dengon (ルージュの伝言) and Yasashisa ni Tsutsumaretanara (やさしさに包まれたなら). Producer Suzuki recommended Hikōki-gumo to Miyazaki in December 2012, feeling the lyrics resembled the story of The Wind Rises.[14] Suzuki personally called Matsutoya, "Your song, Hikôki-gumo (term designating the cloud trails left by an airplane), fits perfectly with the universe of the film on which we are currently working on,” he told her. “I am discussing with our director, Hayao Miyazaki, the possibility of using it as the theme song for the film."

Hikōki-gumo was re-released on vinyl record to coincide with a special exhibition at the Ghibli Museum. Miyazaki first encountered the song just after he graduated from university. Upon hearing his son play the song one day, the elder Miyazaki replayed it again and again until the cassette tape broke.[21]

Upon hearing this request, Matsutoya responded, "You're making me the shiver... It seems that forty years of my musical career existed solely for this moment..."

The Wind Rises soundtrack was released in Japan on July 17, 2013, by Tokuma Japan Communications.[22]

Das gibt's nur einmal (English: It only happens once) is the German song Hans Castorp sings while playing the piano at Hotel Kusakaru in the film. Jiro Horikoshi and Naoko's father later join the singing. This song is composed by Werner Richard Heymann for the German movie Der Kongreß tanzt.

Gallery


Voice Cast

Character Original English
Jiro Horikoshi Hideaki Anno
Kaichi Kaburagi (young)
Joseph Gordon-Levitt
Zach Callison (young)
Naoko Satomi Miori Takimoto
Mayu Iino (young)
Emily Blunt
Madeleine Rose Yen (young)
Kiro Honjo Hidetoshi Nishijima John Krasinski
Kurokawa Masahiko Nishimura Martin Short
Castorp Stephen Albert Werner Herzog
Naoko's Father Morio Kazama William H. Macy
Jiro's mother Keiko Takeshita Edie Mirman
Kayo Horikoshi Mirai Shida
Maki Shinta (young)
Mae Whitman
Eva Bella (young)
Hattori Jun Kunimura Mandy Patinkin
Mrs. Kurokawa Shinobu Otake Jennifer Grey
Caproni Nomura Mansai Stanley Tucci

Additional English Voices

  • Matt Adler
  • David Cowgill (Fight Engineer)
  • Darren Criss (Katayama)
  • Holly Dorff Long
  • Moosie Drier
  • Ronan Farrow (Mitsubishi Employee)
  • Jackie Gonneau
  • Nicholas Guest
  • Richard Horvitz
  • Rif Hutton
  • Matthew Labyorteaux
  • Michelle Ruff
  • Byron Thames
  • Madeleine E. White
  • Mae Whitman (Kinu)
  • Elijah Wood (Sone)
  • David Zyler

Credits

Credit Staff
Director, Screenplay Hayao Miyazaki
Executive Producer Koji Hoshino
Animation Director, Character Design Kitarō Kōsaka
Producer Toshio Suzuki
Sound Director Koji Kasamatsu
Key Animation Akihiko Yamashita, Akiyo Okuda, Atsuko Otani, Atsuko Tanaka, Atsushi Tamura, Eiji Yamamori, Fumie Imai, Hideaki Yoshio, Hideki Hamasu, Hiroko Minowa, Hiromasa Yonebayashi, Hiroomi Yamakawa, Hiroyuki Aoyama, Katsuya Kondo, Kazuhide Tomonaga, Kazuyoshi Onoda, Kenichi Yamada, Kiyotaka Oshiyama, Madoya Hoshino, Makiko Futaki, Masaaki Endou, Masafumi Yokota, Megumi Kagawa, Michiyo Suzuki, Sachiko Sugino, Shinji Otsuka, Shinya Ohira, Shougo Furuya, Shunsuke Hirota, Taichi Furumata, Takeshi Honda, Takeshi Inamura, Tomoko Miura, Tsutomu Awada, Yoshimi Itazu
Background Artists Ayae Kanbe, Kikuyo Yano, Kiyoshi Samejima, Masako Nakazato, Mitsuo Yoshino, Naomi Kasugai, Noboru Yoshida, Ryoko Ina, Satoko Nakamura, Sayaka Hirahara, Shiho Sato, Takashi Omori, Tatsuya Kushida, Woo Hoon Ryu, Yoshiaki Honma, Yoshikazu Fukutome, Youichi Nishikawa, Youichi Watanabe, Yuka Nitta, Yumi Ishii
In-Between Animation Akane Ōtani, Akiko Teshima, Alexandra Weihrauch, Asako Matsumura, Ayaka Saitou, Ayano Sugai, Chae Jeok Kang, Eimi Tamura, Emi Ohta, Haruyasu Watanabe, Hirofumi Yamada, Hisako Yaji, Kaori Fujii, Kaori Itou, Katsutoshi Nakamura, Keiko Tomizawa, Kengo Takebana, Kiyoko Makita, Kumiko Tanihira, Kumiko Terada, Mai Nakasato, Makiko Suzuki, Mariko Matsuo, Mariko Suzuki, Masakiyo Koyama, Masako Akita, Masami Nakanishi, Masaru Okuwaki, Masaya Saito, Masayo Andō, Maya Fujimori, Mayumi Ohmura, Megumi Higaki, Miki Itou, Minoru Ohashi, Misa Koyasu, Misaki Kikuta, Mitsuki Chiba, Naoki Fuchigami, Naoko Kawahara, Naoya Wada, Natsumi Yasu, Rie Eyama, Rie Nakagome, Ryosuke Tsuchiya, Ryuichi Yamauchi, Ryuuji Iwabuchi, Seiko Higashi, Setsuya Tanabe, Shinichiro Yamada, Shiori Fujisawa, Shotaro Imai, Shouko Nagasawa, Shuichi Onda, Sumie Nishido, Taichi Sato, Takemasa Shiroda, Tomoyo Nishida, Yasumi Ogura, Yayoi Toki, Yōjirō Arai, Yoshie Noguchi, Yu Matsuura, Yu Fen Cheng, Yui Ōzaki, Yuka Matsumura, Yukari Furiya, Yukari Yamaura, Yukiko Kunitake, Yuko Tagawa
Color Design Michiyo Yasuda
Art Director Yoji Takeshige
Producer Toshio Suzuki
Music Joe Hisaishi
Editor Takeshi Seyama

Related Publications

  • The Wind Rises THIS IS ANIMATION, Shogakukan, July 2013
  • The Wind Rises Visual Guide Newtype Editorial Department, Kadokawa Shoten, July 2013
  • Studio Ghibli Storyboard Complete Works 19 - The Wind Rises", Tokuma Shoten, July 2013
  • Ghibli THE ART Series The Wind Rises Tokuma Shoten, July 2013
  • The Wind Rises" Tokuma Shoten <Tokuma Anime Picture Book>, August 2013
  • The Wind Rises Film Comic Animage Editorial Department, Tokuma Shoten (upper and lower), September 2013
  • Kaze Tachinu Roman Album Tokuma Shoten, October 2013
  • The Wind Rises Hayao Miyazaki's Delusion Comeback, Dainippon Painting, November 2015. Painting book
  • The Wind Rises Ghibli Textbook 18 Studio Ghibli Edition, Bungei Shunju <Bungei Shunju Bunko>, May 2018
  • The Wind Rises Cinema Comic 18, Bungei Shunju <Bungei Ghibli Bunko>, July 2019

References

  1. THE WIND RISES (12A). StudioCanal. British Board of Film Classification (March 31, 2014). Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved on May 28, 2021.
  2. Robles, Manuel (2013). Antología Studio Ghibli: Volumen 2 p. 80 Barcelona: Dolmen Editorial. ISBN 978-8415296935
  3. The Wind Rises (2014) – Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on April 4, 2014. Retrieved on May 28, 2021.
  4. International Total Gross. Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on February 28, 2014. Retrieved on May 28, 2021.
  5. "Historical Perspectives on Hayao Miyazaki’s The Wind Rises (2013)", Not Even Past
  6. "Professional Work Style Special Edition Film Director Hayao Miyazaki's Work "The Wind Rises" 1000 Days Record / Declaration of Retirement" on NHK
  7. Shone, Tom (February 21, 2014).The Wind Rises: a flight into Hayao Miyazaki's magic and poetry". The Guardian. Retrieved December 09, 2014.
  8. "Le Cimetière Marin".
  9. "Windows and the Invisible Light" by Junji Nishikawa, Window Research Institute
  10. "The Prose and Poetry of Tatsuo Hori"
  11. "Commentary on The Wind Rises", Filmaga
  12. "The Wind Rises Analysis", Buta Connection
  13. "Person Visit - Hayao Miyazaki", Yahoo News.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 The Wind Rises Visual Guide (Japanese) Kadokawa Shoten (20 July 2011). ISBN 978-4-04-110510-8
  15. Hayao Miyazaki interview with Kazutoshi Handô "It's the first time I've cried in my movie - The Wind Rises War and the Japanese - The Birth of the Zero, the Great Kantô Earthquake... Just a testimony of an era when life was difficult." Bungei Shunju, " Vol. 91, No. 9, Bungei Shunju , August 1, 2013, p. 95.
  16. "The Wind Rises: On a higher plane", Chicago Reader.
  17. "The Wind Rises Production Notes", Sci-Fi Japan.
  18. "The Wind Rises", LA Times.
  19. Lecture by Hayao Miyazaki at Hansen's Disease Museum - Osamu Sagawa, former chairman of Tama Zenseien on January 29, 2019, Asahi Shimbun
  20. "Transcript of the NHK Documentary", Buta Connection
  21. "The Cloud of the Airplane", Tokyo Art Beat
  22. Kaze Tachinu Music Official Site

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